- Source one and two are for the timeline
How it all Started:
Several Mexicans were forming groups to discuss their agitated feelings and ideas about colonial rule even by 1800, but when Napoleon replaced the Spanish throne of Ferdinand VII, with his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte, the Mexicans planned to take matters into their own hands. They angered by the way they were treated in their own native country. They believed that their ruler should be a native inhabitant of Mexico, and not a Spaniard of Frenchman. The Mexicans, especially the middle and lower classes, felt thaty they were not being treated equally as a Mexican citizen. They did not have the same opportunities as the upper classes, especially in the government. Their ideas and needs were never represented and they were becoming angry with this situation. The famous priest in Dolores, a city in Mexico, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, is known as the father of independence. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla gained this title because he triggered the Independence Revolution in 1810. He, along with other Creoles, formed one of the groups that plotted against Spain. The main incentive for the Creoles was their want for freedom from Spain. Hidalgo began planning for a revolt agianst the Mexican goverment. However, another priest&; discovered Hidalgo's plans and told the Peninsulars. Because of this, Hidalgo had no choice to but to wait to be arrested, flee Dolores, and rally the Mexicans against the Spainiards. Forced to act fast, on September 16th 1810, Hidalgo rang the church bell in Dolores as a sign for the revolution against Spain. There, he spoke the well-known speech, Grito de Dolores, rallying hundreds of Creoles.This movement became an unexpected, bloody class struggle and within a month 50,000 (poor Native Americans mostly) men had joined Hidalgo. The Mexican Revolution was a three part war and it ended in 1821.
The Accomplishments: Hidalgo was able to bring together a large fighting force that would go on to capture and ransack several major cities, including Guanajuato, a state in the central highlands of Mexico. At the battle of Monte de las Cruces, Hidalgo's army faced 2,500 royalist troops, and the rebels won but retreated. Unfortunetly for Hidalgo, many Mexicans, as well as Native Americans, did not support Hidalgo. His large, but poorly organized army would niot be able to withhold the well-trained troops of Spain. After the defeat at Puente de Calderon, much of Hidalgo's army deserted him, and he was captured and executed on January 31st, 1811. Jose Maria Morelos, another priest, took a new leadership in the revolution for Mexican independence. He kept up the revolution's fighting into 1812, and a year later a revolutionary congress made him executive chief and pronounced independence of Mexico from Spain. Folowing was the Constitution of Apatzing in 1814, which established Mexican male suffrage and rid of the caste system and slavery. This prosperous time could only last so long. Agustin de Iturbide, forced Morelos to retreat. Morelos was later captured and executed in 1815. Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, a viceroy, was able to convince most of the revolutionary leaders to surrender, except for some such as Vicente Guerrero. It started to look as if the rebellion would fail, however, suddenly there was a liberal revolution in Spain. Groups of people decided to secede from Spain. The same Iturbide from before led them along the way, and with the people of Guerrero, a region in Mexico, he helped to make the Plan de Iguala. This was a peace treaty declaring Mexico’s independence as a constitutional monarchy under Ferdinand VII. It made creoles and Peninsulars equal. Iturbide became emperor in 1822, and crowned as Agustin I.
After Independence: Although he was made emperor, Iturbide turned out to be a weak ruler after all. Once he came to power, he destabilized his role by initiating an attack in Central America in 1821. Despite expanding Mexico’s boundaries, he overused his resources. Mexico did not have enough money for Iturbide to pay his soldiers. Also, a few people formed a liberal group within the congress, and they protested against this form of government, and encouraged a republic. Iturbide broke up the congress, but Antonio López de Santa Anna, along with others, insisted on a republican constitution. In March 1823, Iturbide was stripped of his position, and exiled to Italy. His rule did not even last five years.
After all was said and done, the final outcomes on the country of Mexico began to move in a positive direction. Mexico gained Independence and the government began to reform. all in all, the government developed into a republic where most of the population of the Mexican people could be represented more accurately. The Mexican government began to appeal to the greater population as a republican constitution arouse and the government began to satisfy the entire country.
- ↑ "Cortez." Cortez involvement with Mexico.2000.ThinkQuest. November 20, 2009.http://library.thinkquest.org/J002678F/cortez.htm
- ↑ "The 16th of September Mexican Independence Day." Mexican Independence. 2001. WebMaster. November 19, 2009. http://www.olvera-street.com/html/mexican_independence.html
- ↑ "Mexico."Mexican Revolt of 1810.1997.ABC-Clio NCHS Library. 19 Nov, 2009. http://www.worldgeography.abc-clio.com/Search/Display.aspx?categoryid=21&entryid=1132096&searchtext=mexican+revolt+of+1810&type=simple&option=all&searchsites=1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8